Summary of EnVision science requirements and instruments suite, indicating the type of instrument and analysis & location of measurements from core to higher atmosphere. 


  • VenSAR, an S-band phased array SAR antenna, currently under science, technical and programmatic assessment


  • SRS, the Subsurface Radar Sounder, inheriting experience gained with MARSIS and SHARAD


  • VenSpec, the Venus IR emissivity spectral mapper and IR & UV spectrometers, building on the success of VIRTIS and VMC on Venus Express, UVI on Akatsuki; and with heritage from NOMAD on ExoMars and SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express

Radio Science and Gravity Experiment

  • Radio Science, 2-way mapping, radio-occultations, gravity field, love number k2

Further payload to investigate complementary and more subtle atmospheric escape-related science goals may also be included, subject to spacecraft resource availability, funding, and competitive selection.