VenSAR, a reflectarray, dual polarization S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar, will map the surface using a range of modes including imaging at spatial resolutions of 10 m to 30 m, altimetry, polarimetry (HV for the 1st time) and radiometry;
SRS, a Subsurface Sounding Radar (SRS) will penetrate into the top kilometre of the subsurface, and search for underground layering and buried boundaries;
VenSpec, a suite of three spectrometers VenSpec-U, VenSpec-H and VenSpec-M, operating in the UV and Infrared, will map trace gases, including search for volcanic gas plumes, above and below the clouds, and map surface composition;
Radio Science Experiment
RSE, a gravity & radio science investigation will use radio tracking to map the planet’s gravity field, constraining internal structure, and will measure atmospheric properties through radio occultation.